Batwa History

The Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is home to some of the greatest biodiversity on the planet, a profusion of exotic plants and animals that includes the endangered mountain gorilla. For thousands of years, the forest was also home to an indigenous people—the Batwa pygmies.

As the original dwellers of this ancient jungle, the Batwa were known as “The Keepers of the Forest.” The history of these small-statured people is long and rich. The Batwa survived by hunting small game using arrows or nets and gathering plants and fruit in the rain forest. They lived in huts constructed of leaves and branches, moving frequently in search of fresh supplies of food. The Batwa lived in harmony with the forest and its creatures, including the mountain gorillas, for millennia. Some anthropologists estimate that pygmy tribes such as the Batwa have existed in the equatorial forests of Africa for 60,000 years or more.

In 1992, the lives of the Batwa pygmies changed forever. The Bwindi Impenetrable Forest became a national park and World Heritage Site to protect the 350 endangered mountain gorillas within its boundaries. The Batwa were evicted from the park. Since they had no title to land, they were given no compensation. The Batwa became conservation refugees in an unfamiliar, unforested world.

Many Batwa died during the early years of exile, and the tribe’s very existence was severely threatened. Since 2001, American medical missionaries Dr. Scott and Carol Kellermann have dedicated themselves to serving the Batwa in southwest Uganda. The Kellermanns purchased land and established programs to improve conditions for the tribe—home-building, schools, a hospital and clinics, water and sanitation projects, income generation, and the promotion of indigenous rights.

These activities are now being assumed by the Batwa themselves through the Batwa Development Program (BDP). The BDP is managed by the Batwa, with a non-Batwa advisory committee that helps to implement programs. It is supported by the Kellermann Foundation, a US-based nonprofit organization.


Ways to help:

Without your generosity, the Batwa could remain one of the poorest, most marginalized people groups in the world.

Photo of Batwa family by their hut

Your support remains crucial to the survival of these fascinating people.




  • The Batwa, like any other Ugandan tribe, deserve the right to land and government support. Lets all work together to honor them as fellow Ugandans and do our best to support them. Together we can make a difference.

  • Yes, the Batwa era also human beings just like any other person. So they need to be respected because it is there culture and we all had our cultures though we some how diverted away from it which means that they will also cope up with time because development is a gradual process, it goes on slowly with time.

    • Kato lameck says:

      I thank de almighty God that he create man(us) in his own image .The batwa are also human beings like every body me en u . Yes these people deserve land like any other ugandans ,the government should get them land to live so that they may also be happy may God bless the batwa

  • Komunda Enos says:

    Death threatened the Batwa. Wherever they would live and get sick and one member died, that meant shifting to another place. But today they can access medical services and can face death as other people do and do own land. This is very important. Having houses to live in is also a great step.

  • Patrick Hill says:

    Saw the Batwa Experience in Bwindi recently. Very authentic, interesting and fun.

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